THE AGES

The ages of time and the Prehistoric Angelic Conflict are skillfully defined by a dual meaning of the zodiac.  The clock of ages in the heavens defines the ages of human history and pertinent ages before time began.  The definition of the ages is necessary for a complete understanding of the mystery doctrine of the Church Age.

Contents


The Fulness of Time

Introduction

The Lord Jesus Christ came in the "fulness of time" (Galatians 4:4).  That means the high point of human history, or so we think.  We can't possibly know because we don't know the time of the end of human history.  So how can we say that Jesus Christ came at the high point, or middle, of human history.  We obviously don't know as much about the simple phrase, "fulness of time" as we think.  So what does it mean?

To answer the question requires understanding time, which had a definite beginning, and understanding the plan of the ages.  An age might be defined as a long period of time, but some of the ages include time and some do not.  In order to understand the "fulness of time," we must understand the ages.  But it will obviously be impossible to start from the beginning of eternity, which has no beginning; so we will just dive right into the middle and use an inductive approach to fan out fore and aft.  In other words, we will start with the "fulness of time" and then go back and forward into eternity.

It turns out that the Bible contains the clock of the ages, which can be easily learned.  Once the clock is understood, the panorama of not only human history, but the ages before and after can be understood.  Although this might appear to be a magnanimous task, the subject is not all that complicated to explain in general terms.  And the result will greatly enhance our understanding of who we are.  We will achieve a systemic perspective that covers both time and eternity.  Further, a new outline of the Bible will emerge, which will enable us to understand the mystery doctrine of the Church Age on a much grander scale.

Clock of Ages

First, to understand the ages, we need a clock.  God already thought of that.  On the fourth day of Creation (actually re-creation), he put the clock of the ages in the heavens (Genesis 1:14-19).  The tick marks on the clock are the constellations.  There are twelve constellations that are separated by about 30 degrees each that form the 360 degrees of the clock.  The clock is the zodiac, which was fully understood by Adam.  The knowledge about it was passed down in the form of the Star Gospel.  However, along the way astrologers became more inclined to listen to the devil's lies than pay attention to Bible Doctrine.  So astrology got a bad name.  This is not about astrology as it is used today.  The constellations are in the heavens, and they beg to be understood.  Anyone who wants to understand the Plan of God, need merely look up.  After that he is without excuse.
Zodiac
The zodiac begins with Virgo, the virgin, and goes counterclockwise to Leo, the lion of the tribe of Judah.  Jesus Christ was born of a virgin in the First Advent, and He will return as the lion of the tribe of Judah at the Second Advent to conquer the enemies of Israel.  The meanings of all the constellations are defined in the Star Gospel.  Those definitions are all for time, however.  It turns out that the constellations are also useful for measuring ages.  They have been used for that ever since Adam.

Every year at the Spring Equinox (Vernal Equinox) throughout human history people have looked up to see what constellation they are under.  They discovered that about every 2150 years the constellation overhead slipped backward (clockwise) to the next one.  The tilt of the earth on its axis results in the cycle of the precession of the equinoxes where one complete cycle is 25,800 years. The Equinox point moves backward along the zodiac clock at a rate of about one degree in 72 years, or one 30 degree sign in about 2150 years.  When a new constellation is overhead it is time to reset the clocks and calendars; otherwise, over time, Christmas would come in July.  When the age of Pisces appeared, the calendars were reset to 1 AD.  Granted, the calendars weren't corrected until 525 AD when they were corrected to begin counting at the birth of Christ, but the birth of Christ was also the beginning of Pisces.2

Now, since the beginning of time, there have only been four ages, and there is only one additional one scheduled in the Bible, which will be the Millennium.  After the Millennium, time, which started with re-creation, will cease.  The Millennium is the millennial reign of the Lord Jesus Christ, not the beginning of 2001.  Furthermore, no one, not even the Son of God, knows when the Millennium will start.  So, don't bother to get out the calculators.

Fulness of Time

Now, Jesus Christ came in the "fulness of time."  What does that mean?  We know that Jesus was born of a virgin about 3 BC.2  Whereas, our calendar begins in 1 AD, according to the best evidence, the star of Bethlehem did not appear that year.  What made the event so important to the Magi, who were astrologers, was that it coincided with the beginning of a new age, the Age of Pisces.  The birth of Jesus Christ coincided with the beginning of the Age of Pisces, the two fish, one pointing toward heaven and the other toward earth, which symbolized the propitiation of God and reconciliation of mankind to God through the offering of Jesus Christ on the Cross.

So, we know where Jesus Christ was born on the clock of time.  And we also know that the zodiac begins with Virgo.  It turns out that Pisces is directly opposite Virgo, which makes it half way round the zodiac.  The dashed line drawn on the zodiac from Virgo to Pisces points to the middle of the clock, or the fulness of time.  Now that is what the "fulness of time" means.  It means not just the fulness of time in human history, but the fulness of time on the zodiac, which includes the section from Virgo to Cancer when time had not yet begun.

The "fulness of time" not only refers to human history, but it also refers to the ages before time began.  What happened before time began?  For one thing, the earth was packed in ice during the last ice age, which was about 8000 BC.  Since there was no time, the date of the ice age cannot be stated with certainty.  We also know that there was an Eternal Life Conference in which God the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit planned the details and schedule of human history.  God the Father was the author of the Plan.  God the Son was announced as the Savior.  And God the Holy Spirit would be the source of energy.  Everything decided was compatible with the Decree of God whereby He knew all the knowable simultaneously.  During the Eternal Life Conference, the theological outline of Infralapsarianism (which will be explained later) emerged.

How long the Eternal Life Conference took is not known, since time did not exist.  However, the major topics that were covered are known because they occurred under the signs along the zodiac.  First, there was Virgo.  It was decided that the Messiah would be born of a virgin.

“Therefore the Lord Himself will give you a sign: Behold, a virgin will be with child and bear a son, and she will call His name Immanuel. (Isaiah 7:14, NAS)
Next there was Leo.  Messiah would rule the world as King, the lion of the tribe of Judah.
For a child will be born to us, a son will be given to us;
And the government will rest on His shoulders;
And His name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God,
Eternal Father, Prince of Peace. (Isaiah 9:6, NAS)
Jesus Christ would be the Savior.  Peace on earth means the doctrine of Reconciliation whereby there is peace with God when man is reconciled to God and God is propitiated.  Then there was Cancer, the crab, which symbolizes eternal security.
and I give eternal life to them, and they shall never perish; and no one shall snatch them out of My hand. (John 10:28, NAS)

Prehistoric Angelic Conflict

But why was the Eternal Life Conference necessary in the first place?  Was it simply because God wanted to bring sons into glory?  That was obviously part of the answer.
For it was fitting for Him, for whom are all things, and through whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to perfect the author of their salvation through sufferings. (Hebrews 2:10, NAS)
However, the other reason is that Satan had fallen when he sinned with arrogant ambition and tried to be like the Most High.  Satan had led a third of the angels in Heaven to rebel with him.  There had been a prehistoric angelic conflict followed by a trial in which Satan was judged and sentenced to the Lake of Fire.  Satan had appealed the decision, and God had accepted the appeal.  Human history was created to provide witnesses for the appeal trial.

That's how Adam and Eve wound up under Gemini.  Gemini refers to two of a kind, which symbolizes a witness, as in court.  The two people were Adam and 'Ishah, who weren't twins, but were two homo sapiens.  They were the first two witnesses in the appeal trial.

Now, Satan's fall is symbolized by Capricorn, the goat.  The goat was used for the sin offering for a leader.  Thus, the goat represented the guilt of Satan.  Satan was also symbolized by the satyr, a demon depicted as half-man/half-goat (Isaiah 13:21, 34:14; Leviticus 17:7; 2 Chronicles 11:15).  The satyr is sometimes translated shaggy goat.

The Prehistoric Angelic Conflict was represented by Sagittarius, the archer, and Scorpio, the scorpion.  Scorpio is the symbol of Satan, and Sagittarius represents a warrior, such as an Elect Angel.  There was fighting in the heavens as Satan rebelled against God.  The rebels had to be rounded up and put on trial.  After Satan's fall the angels had a chance to choose where they would spend eternity.  They already had Eternal Life, but they could choose for God or reject God and receive the Lake of Fire.  When the decision making was over, Satan had convinced a third of the angels to follow him.

A trial was held in Heaven.  Satan lost, and the Lord sentenced him to the Lake of Fire.

“Then He will also say to those on His left, ‘Depart from Me, accursed ones, into the eternal fire which has been prepared for the devil and his angels; (Matthew 25:41, NAS)
The trial was symbolized by Libra, the scales, for the Justice of God.  However, Satan appealed the decision.  His argument was something like, "How can a God of love sentence us to the Lake of Fire?"  The Lord accepted Satan's appeal.  The planning for the appeal was the Eternal Life Conference, and the appeal trial is human history.

The Mystery Revealed

If God did not want man to know about the ages before time, why did He put the signs in the heavens?  Obviously, the signs in the heavens were bold explanations of events before time began.  God obviously wanted us to know about these things.  Not only are they written in the heavens, they are recorded in the scripture.  And the two are in perfect agreement when Bible Doctrine is accurately interpreted.  Satan has invested enormous amounts of effort in propaganda to discredit the truth of the zodiac.  He invented an entire system of mythology (lies) to explain away the simple truth of God's redemptive Plan written in the stars.

The LORD told Job about the zodiac.

"Can you bind the chains of the Pleiades,
Or loose the cords of Orion? (Job 38:31)
The LORD described the Pleiades as bound with chains like a bracelet with jewels or a bouquet of jewels.  The word for chains is the Hebrew, tond^u^m^ (ma`adanoth), means chains, bindings or twistings, and was used for the knots at the end of a mat by which loosing, it comes to pieces.  It was also used for the bands for fastening willow branches to make a booth (hut), and it was used for a bouquet of myrtle.  Pleiades is the Hebrew hm*yK! (kimah).  Pleiades is in Taurus.  The chords of Orion refer to the bands or chords by which the constellation is symbolically dragged along in the heavens.  The word for chords is the Hebrew tokv=om (mosheshkoth), and Orion is the Hebrew lys!K= (kesil).
"Can you bring forth the signs of the zodiac at the right time,
And guide the Bier with its children? (Job 38:32)
"The signs of the zodiac" is the Hebrew torZ*m^ (mazzaroth).  Mazzaroth refers to the twelve signs of the zodiac, which were regarded by the Arabs as menazil, i.e. station-houses in which the sun took up its abode in succession during the year.  The word is equivalent to the Hebrew tolZ*M^ (mazzaloth) (2 Kings 23:5).  It is sometimes translated, constellations.  Thus, the LORD referred to the signs of the zodiac for telling time, i.e. a clock.

The Bier is the Hebrew vy!u^ ('ajish), which the astronomers call Ursa Major, or the Great Bear.  The Hebrew word, however, is and aphaeresis of a similar word, vu^n^ (na`ash), which comes from an Arabic word that means bier and is a pun for bear.13   The story that goes with the paronomasia is that the children were the attendants in the funeral procession of the bier of their father slain by Gedi, the pole star.6  The procession of children following the bier of their slain father was a common folk tale in Syria.  When the Lord brought this up, He was chiding Job as a child.  Furthermore, the Great Bier symbolizes the first Adam, and the Little Bier symbolizes the Second Adam, the Lord Jesus Christ.

"Do you know the laws of Heaven,
Or do you define its control on the earth? (Job 38:33)
The LORD reminded Job of the laws of Heaven, which is the word, heavens, but should be taken as singular. The laws of Heaven govern the physical laws of the Universe, including the laws of Newtonian mechanics that govern the interaction of heavenly bodies, but there is more implied.  There are not only definitions like mass, distance, and velocity, but also laws that influence, or control, plant and animal life.  Birds migrate and plants perform photosynthesis in the day.  Animals sleep at night.  The word that is translated, "control," is the Hebrew rf*v=m! (mishe tar), which means control, influence, authority, or rule.  The root of the word is shoter, which was an official and came from scribe or secretary from the original meaning of an arranger or organizer.  The laws of Heaven that have control over the earth go beyond Newtonian mechanics.  The laws are part of God's overall Plan.  Thus, the signs of the zodiac have meaning for the earth that goes beyond the physical.  The signs have meaning because they are part of a bigger system, namely, the Plan of God.

Jesus Christ also spoke of the ages.

“And whoever shall speak a word against the Son of Man, it shall be forgiven him; but whoever shall speak against the Holy Spirit, it shall not be forgiven him, either in this age, or in the age to come. (Matthew 12:32, NAS)
The Greek word for age is aion, which refers to an age of time or eternity.  It is sometimes translated, eon.  This verse explains the blasphemy against the Holy Spirit, which is rejection of the gospel after it is clearly understood through the ministry of the Holy Spirit.  A person who rejects the gospel message of the Holy Spirit cannot be saved and, therefore, cannot be forgiven of his sins.  Although the sins were paid for on the Cross, they cannot be forgiven until a person accepts Christ as his Savior.  The sin of blasphemy against the Holy Spirit would not be forgiven in the current age of Jesus, the Age of Pisces, or in the age to come, the Age of Aquarius (the Millennium).

The phrase about this age and the age to come is repeated in Mark 10:29-30; Luke 20:34-35; Ephesians 1:21.  And the Church Age under the Age of Pisces is described as the completion, or end, of the activities that were begun in the previous ages.

Now these things happened to them as an example, and they were written for our instruction, upon whom the ends of the ages have come. (1 Corinthians 10:11, NAS)
Note that the word, "ends," is the literal translation of the Greek, telos, which is plural.  It is good Greek to use a plural to modify multiple ages, but in English we would probably just say end of the ages.  The conclusion of the stories that began under Adam, Noah, Abraham, and Moses as well as the ages before time, is occurring in the Church Age under Pisces.

The mystery doctrine of the Church Age was not revealed during the previous ages.  The word, mystery, is the translation of the Greek, musterion, which means private knowledge only for the initiated.

Ephesians 3:8-9, NAS
8 To me, the very least of all saints, this grace was given, to preach to the Gentiles the unfathomable riches of Christ, 9 and to bring to light what is the administration of the mystery which for ages has been hidden in God, who created all things;
Believers of the Church Age are the recipients of the knowledge about the Plan of God that has been hidden through all the other ages (Romans 16:25; Colossians 1:26).  Although God knew everything in eternity past, His Plan for dealing with Satan's rebellion was formulated during the Eternal Life Conference.  Some of the Plan was revealed to angels, but other parts of the Plan were not announced until they happened in time.  The Church Age and the calling out of the Royal Family of God was not announced beforehand.  There are no signs on the zodiac for the Church, although we now know that it is occurring in the Age of Pisces.  Similarly, we don't know the end date of the Church Age.

The Church Age, which was initiated with Christ's arrival in the fulness of time, is the high point of human history.  There has never been an age in time like the Church Age, and there will never be an age in time after it that rises to its level.  The Church Age believer, chosen to be royalty, has the greatest opportunity of human history.  With the divine operating assets such as the Filling of the Holy Spirit and with the inheritance of the Escrow Blessings, the Church Age believer has equal opportunity to fulfill the greatest opportunities of the Spiritual Life of all the ages of time.

The Eternal Life Conference

Perspective

The Eternal Life Conference came about for two reasons:  To bring many sons into glory and as an extension of the Prehistoric Angelic Conflict.
For it was fitting for Him, for whom are all things, and through whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to complete (bring to maturity) the author of their salvation through sufferings. (Hebrews 2:10)
Satan had been judged and sentenced to the Lake of Fire (Matthew 25:41).  Then Satan appealed the decision, and God accepted the appeal.  Human history would be created to provide witnesses for the appeal trial.

As with any trial, there had to be rules of procedure and schedules.  In the Eternal Life Conference, the members of the Trinity assumed their roles related to the trial.  God the Father was the author of the Plan, which heretofore, had never been communicated to anyone.  Charts were made to reveal certain aspects of the trial, such as procedures and schedules, to angels for the prosecution (God's side) and angels for the defense (Satan and the fallen angels).  The Lord Jesus Christ was chosen as the presiding Judge.  The Holy Spirit was chosen to perform the work of creation.

The planning and training to cover the thousands of years of human history and the billions of witnesses was extensive.  The angels who would assist the Lord in the daily operations of human history had to receive extensive training.  Boundaries were established for security and limitations of power were documented.  The rules of the game were clearly published and explained to both the prosecution and the defense.  For example, during the trial the angels would be allowed to come to earth, walk around and examine the evidence.

All these activities were accomplished during the Eternal Life Conference.  We don't know how long it took, because there were no clocks.  Time had not yet begun.  The clock of time had not yet started ticking.  But we do know the activities occurred because the signs of the zodiac and the scriptures record them.

Salvation

At the Eternal Life Conference, mankind was given a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ.  God knew that mankind would be given the opportunity to sin and would need a Savior; so Jesus Christ was given the role of Savior.  God the Father, the author of the Plan promised Salvation to all mankind as a demonstration of His Love, and the Lord Jesus Christ was named the Savior.
in the hope of eternal life, which God, who cannot lie, promised long ages ago, (Titus 1:2, NAS)
The hope of Eternal Life is more appropriately translated, the confidence of Eternal Life.  Eternal Life was promised long ages ago, i.e. during the ages of the Eternal Life Conference.

The sign of Virgo designates the beginning of the Eternal Life Conference when it was decided the the Messiah would be born of a virgin (Isaiah 7:14).  Jesus Christ would also be the King from the tribe of Judah as represented by the sign of Leo, the lion of the Tribe of Judah.  And Jesus Christ would be the Savior as represented by the sign of Cancer, the crab.

and I give eternal life to them, and they shall never perish; and no one shall snatch them out of My hand. (John 10:28, NAS)
When God decided to create witnesses for the appeal trial, He also decided to allow them to sin, and He decided to provide a Redeemer to pay for their sin.  He decided to grant them Eternal Life and to exalt them to the highest level of any created beings.  The least would be the greatest.  Jesus Christ was to be the Savior to pay for the sins of the world.
Hebrews 9:25-26, NAS
25 nor was it that He should offer Himself often, as the high priest enters the holy place year by year with blood not his own. 26 Otherwise, He would have needed to suffer often since the foundation of the world; but now once at the consummation of the ages He has been manifested to put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself.
The "consummation of the ages" means that Jesus Christ fulfilled His purpose specified in the Eternal Life Conference to be the Savior of the world.
For the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation to all mankind, (Titus 2:11)
The Lord Jesus Christ fulfilled His purpose and provided Salvation for all mankind.
but we speak God’s wisdom in a mystery, the hidden wisdom, which God predestined before the ages to our glory; (1 Corinthians 2:7, NAS)
The mystery doctrine of the Church Age came from the Eternal Life Conference.  God the Father planned to reveal the mystery doctrine at the Eternal Life Conference, which is called "before the ages."  The preposition translated "before" in the Greek is pro, which means before or in front of.  It does not have to be related to time.  The ages of the Eternal Life Conference were before, or in front of, the ages of time on the zodiac, and the sign of Virgo was opposite (or in front of ) the sign of Pisces of the Church Age.  Thus, "God predestined before the ages" means that the mystery doctrine which would be revealed in the Church Age was decided upon during the ages of the Eternal Life Conference.

The signs of Virgo, Leo, and Cancer were placed in the heavens to designate the major provisions of the Eternal Life Conference before time began.  The Lord Jesus Christ accepted the role of Savior for the redemption of mankind to be accomplished at the fulness of time.

who gave Himself as a ransom, a substitute for all, the testimony to be given at the proper time to that person. (1 Timothy 2:6)
The Lord Jesus Christ became the Redeemer, "a ransom," for all mankind when He paid for the sins of the world on the Cross.  Consequently, everyone in time will have the opportunity to receive the testimony of Christ's payment for sins.  Those who are positive at God consciousness will be given the gospel at the proper time in life, and God the Holy Spirit will make the gospel real so that the person has a legitimate opportunity to choose Eternal Life.

The Book of Life

One of the products of the Eternal Life Conference was the Book of Life, which contained the names of every person who would be born in the human race.  It did not include the names of aborted fetuses that were never born because human life does not exist in the womb.  Human life is the human soul life that is given at the moment of birth outside the womb.
And all who dwell on the earth will worship him (the beast), everyone whose name has not been written from the foundation of the world in the book of life of the Lamb who has been slain. (Revelation 13:8)
The "foundation of the world" was the beginning of the re-creation of the earth to prepare it for human history.  That was Genesis 1:3.  The Book of Life was written before the foundation of the world, which means that it was written during the Eternal Life Conference.

The Book of Life was written during the Eternal Life Conference in accordance with the Plan of God.  This means that a person's name has special significance.  In the Old Testament, people's names always came true.  Even though, parents name children, the Plan of God works through them to fulfill his Plan.  God not only knows all in His foreknowledge, He fulfills the child's name in life.  The person's name in the Book of Life is his own unique identification code; so there is obviously something more than just the name there, since many people have the same name.  Among the other things recorded somewhere in Heaven are even the number of hairs on the head (Matthew 10:30).

If a person dies without receiving Eternal Life, that person's name is blotted out of the Book of Life.

May they be blotted out of the book of life,
And may they not be recorded with the righteous. (Psalm 69:28, NAS)
This verse is part of an imprecatory prayer in Psalm 69 for destruction of enemies, which we should not pray.  But in that prayer the author of the Psalm is praying for the names of his enemies to be blotted out of the Book of Life, which means that they would die and go to hell.  The author is literally praying for them to go to hell.  The decision to end a person's life is God's Sovereign decision alone, and we should not try to influence it.

Believers will not have their names blotted out of the Book of Life.

‘He who overcomes shall thus be clothed in white garments; and I will not erase his name from the book of life, and I will confess his name before My Father, and before His angels. (Revelation 3:5, NAS)


The Prehistoric Angelic Conflict

Satan's Fall

Satan was the keeper of the Throne Room, the highest ranking angel of God until he sinned with arrogant ambition and rebelled.  Satan's fall is portrayed by the fall of the king of Babylon, which is described in Isaiah.  Although the description is not of Satan, it corresponds precisely to Satan.
Isaiah 14:12-14
12 "How you have fallen from heaven,
You star of light (morning star), sun of the dawn!
You have been cut down to the earth,
You who have laid low the nations!
13 "But you said in your heart,
'I will ascend into heaven (throne room);
I will raise my throne above the stars (Elect Angels) of God,
And I will sit in the summit assembly
In the recesses of the north.
14 'I will ascend above the heights of the clouds;
I will make myself like the Most High.'
Satan fell because he sinned and rebelled against God.  He portrayed himself as the Morning Star, even though the Morning Star symbolizes the Lord Jesus Christ.  When Satan was sent from Heaven, he was banished to the earth.  Satan's ambition was to ascend to the Throne of God in the Throne Room where he worked.  He was full of arrogant ambition and wanted to raise his throne (i.e. ascend the throne) above the other angels.  He wanted to preside over the summit assembly, the convocation of angels over which the Lord presides.  The throne of God is in the north.  Satan's ambition was to make himself like the Most High God.  He appealed to the woman in the Garden with the same argument.  He told her that if she ate of the forbidden fruit that she would be as smart as God.

Satan's fall is also described in Revelation.  When Satan rebelled he carried a third of the angels with him.

And the great dragon was thrown down, the serpent of old who is called the devil and Satan, who deceives the whole world; he was thrown down to the earth, and his angels were thrown down with him. (Revelation 12:9, NAS)
The fall of Satan is represented as Capricorn, the Goat, on the zodiac.

The Prehistoric Angelic Conflict

When Satan rebelled, there was war in Heaven between the Elect Angels of God and Satan and the fallen angels.
Revelation 12:7-8
7 And there was war in heaven, Michael and his angels waging war with the dragon. And the dragon and his angels waged war, 8 and they were not strong enough, and there was no longer a place found for them in heaven.
Satan and his angels were thrown out of Heaven down to the earth.  They had their wings clipped.

The war in Heaven was the Prehistoric Angelic Conflict, which is depicted in the signs of the zodiac as Sagittarius, the Archer, fighting Scorpio, the Scorpion.  Scorpio represents the devil while Sagittarius represents the Elect Angels of God.

Satan's Trial

Satan and the fallen angels were given an opportunity similar to the opportunity for Salvation, which they rejected.  They already had Eternal Life.  The only issue was where they would spend eternity, in Heaven or in the Lake of Fire.  After the angels were given an opportunity to choose, Satan convinced a third of them to reject God's offer.  The question has been asked, "Did they know they were going to the Lake of Fire if they rejected the offer?"  The answer is obviously yes.  They were no different than people today who know they are going to hell and yet continue to refuse the free gift of Salvation.

After God's offer was rejected, a trial was held for Satan and the fallen angels.  They were prosecuted and sentenced to the Lake of Fire (Matthew 25:41).  The trial is symbolized by the sign of Libra, the Scales, on the zodiac.  After the sentence was passed, Satan appealed the decision, and God accepted the appeal.  The human race was created to provide witnesses for the appeal trial.

The Creation

The Order of Creation

There was an order to creation.  First, God always existed (John 1:1).  Time does not exist with God.  Then God created the Universe.
In a beginning God created (from something that never existed) the heavens and the earth. (Genesis 1:1)
The word, created, is the Hebrew ar*B* (bara'), which means to create from something which never existed.  This was the original creation of the Universe.  It occurred sometime in eternity past.  God's creation was perfect.  It was not a wasteland.
For thus says the Lord, who created the heavens
(He is the God who formed the earth and made it,
He established it and did not create it a waste place,
But formed it to be inhabited), "I am the Lord, and there is none else. (Isaiah 45:18)
The Lord created (bara') the heavens per Genesis 1:1.  He did not create it a waste place.  It was created complete with an environment to sustain life in the original creation.  The earth was the garden of God during the Prehistoric Angelic Conflict.  There were dinosaurs on the earth as well as prehistoric man (caveman) - not modern man.  Then Satan fell and he was cast down to the earth.  Satan soon destroyed the environment, and it had to be totally renovated for the appeal trial of human history.

Then God packed the earth in ice, which was the last Ice Age around 8000 BC, which is impossible to measure accurately since time did not exist.  All life on the earth was destroyed.  The earth was void and without form and darkness was upon the face of the deep (Genesis 1:2).  Then the Spirit of God incubated the ice.  The Hebrew word, [j^r* (rachaph), means to incubate as a hen brooding over eggs.  The Spirit of God (Holy Spirit) incubated the waters (the ice pack).

However, Isaiah stresses that God did not create the earth a waste place as it was in Genesis 1:2.  Isaiah also says parenthetically that God formed the earth.  The word, "formed," is the Hebrew rx^y* (jatsar), which means to fashion, form, or shape as a potter shapes clay.  That refers to the reshaping of the earth during the seven days of re-creation - not the original creation of the Universe.  God also made the earth, which is the Hebrew hc*U* (`asah), that means to manufacture something out of something.  That is also referring to the re-creation and not the original creation of the Universe.

The Lord spoke the Universe into existence.

By faith we understand that the worlds were prepared by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things which are visible. (Hebrews 11:3, NAS)
After He created the Universe, He created the Angels.
By the word of the Lord the heavens were made,
And by the breath of His mouth all their host. (Psalm 33:6, NAS)
Here the Lord made the Universe, where the word, `asah, (to make) is used in the general sense to describe the creation of the Universe and the re-creation.

After Satan's fall the Lord prepared the earth during seven days for the habitation of man.  That was not the original creation but a total renovation, or re-creation, for man.  The Lord created man on the sixth day.
 

Order of Creation (GUAM)
God John 1:1
Universe Genesis 1:1
Angels Psalm 33:6
Man Genesis 1:27

Beginning of Time

Time did not always exist.  It was created.  It had a beginning, and it will have an end.  Even Einstein proved in his Theory of Relativity that time is a variable.  Time did not exist for the angels in the Prehistoric Angelic Conflict.  The angels had Eternal Life.  They shared God's Life, which always existed independent of time.  Time was created for human history.  Satan's appeal trial was given a time limit.
"Then God commanded, "Light come into being, and light was in existence" (Genesis 1:3)
The word for God is 'Elohim, which is plural and refers to all the members of the Godhead, the Trinity.  Here it refers to the Father as the author of the Plan and the Son, who is the speaking member of the Godhead.  What the Father decreed, the Son executed.  The phrase, "God commanded," contains the normal word, 'amar, for saying or speaking, but it is used as an imperative.  Whereas, it is a Qal imperfect tense in the Hebrew, it is used in the statement as an imperative of command.

God commanded light to come into being.  Light was obviously the visible light that we know because it will be used for day and night.  However, the light had no apparent source.  The Sun and Moon are not mentioned until the fourth day, verse 14.  The light came from God Himself, and its origin was the Heavenly Control Room.  The face of God is light.

You have placed our lawless deeds before You,
Our secret sins in the light of Your face. (Psalm 90:8)
Jesus Christ was the light of the world.
Again therefore Jesus spoke to them, saying, “I am the light of the world; he who follows Me shall not walk in the darkness, but shall have the light of life.” (John 8:12, NAS)
Then God separated the light from the darkness.
And God saw that the light was good; then God caused to separate the light from the darkness. (Genesis 1:4)
The light represented God and His Plan, which was good and Righteous.  The darkness represented Satan and his rebellion, which was bad and evil.  The picture began to emerge immediately that the appeal trial would begin with the witness of light and darkness.  The word, "separate," is in the Hiph'il, which is the causative stem in the Hebrew.  God caused to separate the light from the darkness by the rotation of the earth.
And God called the light day, and the darkness He called night. And there was evening and there was morning, one day. (Genesis 1:5, NAS)
Night and day are caused by the rotation of the earth.  This was the first 24 hour rotation of the earth in human history.  The beginning of the rotation of the earth was the beginning of time.  One way of telling time is by the rotation of the earth, which can be divided into days, hours, minutes, and seconds.  This was before the Sun, Moon, or stars were visible to be used for telling time.

Creation of Man

God created man on the sixth day, and thus the number, 6, becomes the number for man.
And God created man in His own image, in the image of God He created him; male and female He created them. (Genesis 1:27, NAS)
This verse is part of the summary that Moses wrote before explaining the detail.  Here both the man and the woman are mentioned.  The man was actually created first, and then the woman.  The details are explained later.
Then the Lord God sculpted Adam of dust from the ground and breathed into his nostrils a breath giving life; and Adam became a living soul. (Genesis 2:7)
The word for Adam and man in the Hebrew are very nearly alike.  The word, Adam, simply has a definite article in front.  This verse refers to Adam, the first man, who had a name at birth.  Adam means red, or ruddy, the color of suffering and sin.  The Lord fashioned, or sculpted, Adam's body.  Then He gave Adam human soul life, which is the special word in the Hebrew hm*v*n+(neshamah), which means spark of life.  There is biological life in the body and human life in the soul.  The soul is immortal, but the body may die.

Now Adam lived during the first age of time.  That was either Gemini or Taurus.  From the Mazoretic Text (Hebrew Old Testament) the years in the genealogy of Adam's descendants place the creation of Adam as 4109 BC based on Abraham's birth at 2161 BC (derived from the Mazoretic Text) (reference Chronology).3  Kainan (Cainan), whose name is recorded in the Luke genealogy (Luke 3:36) is missing from that genealogy, but he is included in the Septuagint genealogy.  Using the Septuagint (LXX), the creation of Adam would have been in 5575 BC or 5495 (Codex Alexandrinus).  Since the Septuagint genealogy is quoted in Luke, it is a part of scripture and has credibility.  However, since the ages were not quoted in Luke, that genealogy does not verify the ages given in the Septuagint with certainty.

There is another source of the records of antiquity.  The ancient Sumerians kept lists of their kings along with the length of rule.  The unit of measurement in the lists is the Babylonian saros, in which 3600 is equivalent to 18 years 6 months.  The saros was based upon the lunar calendar of 360 days per year with a full cycle of  222 months after which the calendar started over.  The period of 222 months was equal to 3600 sari.  The Sumerian Kings List was copied onto various clay tablets that have survived.  There are eight or ten kings on the lists before the Flood.  There are also ten people in the genealogy lists of the Old Testament.

What should not be surprising, since the records come from the same era, is that the Sumerian Kings lists agree with the Bible.  When the sari are transformed into years, the date of the first king corresponds to the time of Adam.  What is even more surprising is that the two oldest known lists, the Chaldean lists (c. 2170 BC) and the Greek list of Berossus, a Babylonian priest, (c. 250 BC), agree with the Mazoretic Text and Septuagint.  In other words, the Chaldean lists agree with the Mazoretic Text and the Berossus list agrees with the Septuagint.  This is shown in the second Chronology. The Chaldean and Berossus lists are shown in the center with the Hebrew (Mazoretic) genealogy to the left and the Septuagint genealogies to the right.  The number of years from Adam or the first king to the Flood is listed as a subtotal for comparison.

This only solidifies the dilemma of which is right.  Although the Septuagint is from an older manuscript than the Hebrew Mazoretic Text, the Chaldean tablets are older; yet, both texts agree with the ancient chronologies.  The date in the Septuagint for the age of Adam at the birth of Seth is 230 years, which appears more reasonable than the 130 in the Mazoretic Text, because 23 stands for a Spiritual uptrend, and Seth was the first believer in the line of Adam.  Furthermore, a date for the creation of Adam of circa 5500 BC based upon the Septuagint would agree with most scientific, historical, and archeological analysis.  However, the debate, which has preoccupied historians from the earliest ages and drawn in such people as Sir Isaac Newton, is not yet settled.

There were obviously problems in dating, since the earliest known calendar was 2700 BC (from the Sumerians) and the Hebrew calendar based on the moon varies from 354 to 384 days a year.  Yet, it is basically accurate on the average.  As a check on the accuracy of the Biblical genealogies, the date of the Flood can be compared from various cultures.  The dates for the Flood are:  2234 or 2316 BC (Assyrians), 2297 BC (Chinese), 2453 BC (Mazoretic Text), 2300 BC (Greeks), 2600 BC (Egyptians), 2700 BC (Phoenicians), 2900 BC (Mexicans), 3100 BC (Indians), and 3233 BC or 3333 BC (Septuagint).9

The beginning of the age of Taurus was about 4258 BC according to a linear interpolation based upon the beginning of Pisces as 0 BC.  In other words the difference along the ecliptic from the beginning of Taurus to the beginning of Pisces is about 59.4 degrees, which would put the beginning of Taurus at 4258 BC (or 4260 BC rounded).  The calculation of the start point of an age can vary depending upon the method.  Some methods which are not normalized to Pisces place the beginning of Taurus about 4600 BC.  The sign that matches Adam and the woman is obviously the sign of Gemini, which has two people, and two is the sign of a witness.  Adam and the woman were not twins, but they were two alike homo sapiens, and they were the first two witnesses for the appeal trial of Satan.

If the date of creation of Adam is taken from the Septuagint, it would be circa 5500 BC.  Adam and 'Ishah would have lived in the Age of Gemini.  That agrees with the sign which contains the two witnesses.
 

Ages of History (Time) by the Stars
.
Age
Date
People
Meaning
1 Gemini  6100 BC c.5500 - Adam, 'Ishah Witnesses
2 Taurus 4260 BC Adam, Noah, Abraham Redeemer; Angelic Power
3 Aries 1710 BC Moses Atonement
4 Pisces        3 BC Christ Propitiation/Reconciliation
5 Aquarius 2437 AD Millennium (?) Water bearer - blessing poured
? - Date of Millennium is unknown; it may begin before, during, or after Aquarius.

Creation Accounts

The story of creation written by Moses in Genesis is by far the most detailed of any culture.  Moses undoubtedly had access to the Creation Tablets of the Chaldeans.  These tablets are now in the British Museum.  Moses also spoke directly with the Lord; so his account is accurate.  According to historical tradition, the clay tablets that contained information about creation, such as the genealogies, were buried by Noah before the Flood and dug up by him afterward.  The tablets were passed on to the Hebrews.  Moses had access to the information from the Hebrews.

Knowledge of creation came from Adam via the Sumerians.  Adam had a photographic memory and didn't need to write anything down, even though writing had not yet been invented.  When writing was invented around 3400 BC, clay tablets were used to record the truth as well as the lies of mythology.  In the same library of the Chaldeans, there were true and false accounts.  The original legends and false accounts of creation were often very near the true account that was later recorded by Moses.  It was obvious that the account had been altered because various gods would be substituted for the One, true God.

One other thing should be noted.  Prehistoric man (cave man) was not modern man.  Adam was the first modern man.  There were obviously men who lived before Adam.  These men could draw crude pictures and make simple weapons and tools.  However, they were not near Adam in intelligence.  Adam did not evolve from cave man.  Adam was a unique creation of God.

The Master Plan of God

Infralapsarianism

God's master plan for mankind is summarized in the Doctrine of Infralapsarianism, which is Latin for "after the fall."  Infralapsarianism is the summary of God's elective decree related to mankind.  The doctrine goes back to at least 529 AD when Augustine espoused it.  The doctrine consists of five simple points called decrees of God, although from God's perspective there was only one decree, since He knew all the knowable simultaneously in eternity past.  The five simple points of Infralapsarianism separate the apostates from doctrinal believers.  Confusion over the order of the decrees is a primary cause of apostasy.

Doctrine of Infralapsarianism

  1. Decree to create mankind to glorify God and resolve the prehistoric Angelic Conflict. (Hebrews 2:10)
  2. Decree to permit the fall as the extension of the prehistoric Angelic Conflict.  (Condemnation must precede Salvation)
  3. Decree to provide Salvation for all mankind (unlimited atonement).

  4. a. Decree to provide a portfolio of invisible blessing.
  5. Decree to elect those who believe in Christ and leave in just condemnation all who do not believe - decree to elect some from fallen mankind and leave others under sin and condemnation.
  6. Decree to apply salvation to those who believe in Christ - the decree to save the elect through faith in Christ.
The key to the name, Infralapsarianism, is that God decreed election to Salvation after the fall - not before.  He let man sin, and then elected to Salvation those who used their volition to believe in Jesus Christ.

The Doctrine of Infralapsarianism was decided at the Eternal Life Conference after Satan's conviction.  Although God already knew it, the doctrine was agreed upon by the Father (the author of the doctrine), the Son (the chief executor), and the Holy Spirit (the working force).  Whether the doctrine was revealed to the angels is not known, but it was later revealed to mankind through the scripture.

God would create man to resolve the Prehistoric Angelic Conflict.  Mankind would be the witnesses for Satan's Appeal Trial.  Thus, two witnesses were created, Adam and 'Ishah.  Then God would permit the fall.  The principle is that condemnation must precede Salvation.  Man did not need Salvation until he sinned.  The Angels did not need Salvation because they were created with Eternal Life.

After man sinned, He needed a Savior.  God's Plan, however, was to provide the Salvation for all mankind, which is unlimited atonement.  Unlimited atonement means that God would pay for everyone's sins.  That does not mean, however, that everyone will automatically be saved.  Salvation would be a choice, an act of volition, free will.  God did not demand that anyone be saved who did not want Salvation.

At this point, there is a decree to provide a portfolio of invisible blessing.  The blessings would be won from Satan through the victory of the Lord Jesus Christ on the Cross.  The portfolio of invisible blessings would be placed in escrow for every believer.  Each believer would be able to claim his or her portfolio of invisible blessing.  Those that were unclaimed would remain on deposit forever.

The fourth decree was to save some and leave others under condemnation, which means the condemned ones would go to the Lake of Fire with Satan.  This decree established volition as the means of deciding Salvation or condemnation.  It also established the default.  Those who wanted to be saved would have to agree.  Those who made no decision would be condemned by default.  Even today, an election, the hallmark of democracy, is when people choose.  Elections decide winners and losers.

The fifth decree was to establish the method for deciding for Salvation.  Salvation would be through faith in Jesus Christ.  Those who believed in Jesus Christ, the Savior, would be saved.  They would be Spiritually regenerated by the Holy Spirit.  They would receive Spiritual Life for their spiritual death.

Execution of the Plan

After Adam sinned, that sin was passed down to all the descendants of Adam.  At the moment of birth, God imputes Adam's Original Sin to the baby and condemns the child with spiritual death.  Every child of Adam is thus born with an Old Sin Nature and condemned to death just as Adam was.  However, just as Adam was, every child who reaches accountability is given a chance to be saved.  Salvation is through faith in Jesus Christ.

When a person is mature enough, God brings that person to a consciousness of the existence of God.  In this God is displaying His Love for that person.  If the person wants to know God, then God will give him or her an opportunity to hear the Gospel.  At Gospel hearing, the Holy Spirit makes the Spiritual message of Salvation clear so that the individual can exercise volition to accept or reject Eternal Life.  Those who believe in Jesus Christ will be saved, and those who reject this so great Salvation will remain under condemnation.  If a person does not accept the gift of Salvation before death, that person will be sentenced to the Lake of Fire.

Jesus Christ came in the fulness of time to provide Salvation for all mankind as promised in the third decree.

Hebrews 10:5-6, NAS
5 Therefore, when He comes into the world, He says,
“Sacrifice and offering Thou hast not desired,
But a body Thou hast prepared for Me;
6 In whole burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin Thou hast taken no pleasure.
Jesus Christ was born of a virgin per the Plan of God.  The female ovum throws off 23 chromosomes which contain the Old Sin Nature passed down from Adam through the male sperm.  That leaves 23 uncontaminated chromosomes in the ovum.  The Holy Spirit fertilized the ovum to make Jesus Christ by adding 23 uncontaminated chromosomes to make the 46 for pregnancy.  Since Jesus Christ did not have an earthly father, He did not have an Old Sin Nature.  As a baby in the cradle, the Lord Jesus Christ was both God (undiminished deity) and perfect humanity, combined in one unique person.  In order to die, Jesus Christ had to be a man because deity cannot die.  In order to be a mediator and satisfy the Righteous demands of God, He had to be impeccable, without sin.  The Lord Jesus Christ in Hypostatic Union (God and man) was uniquely qualified to pay for our so great Salvation.
Hebrews 10:9-10, NAS
9 then He said, “Behold, I have come to do Thy will.” He takes away the first in order to establish the second. 10 By this will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.
Jesus Christ came to earth, born of a virgin, at the beginning of the Age of Pisces, to provide Salvation for all mankind.  He went to the Cross and paid for the sins of the world.  He offered Himself once for all mankind.  While Jesus Christ was on the Cross, the sins of the entire world were poured out upon Him and judged by God the Father.  Thus, Jesus Christ accomplished Decree number three when He died on the Cross as a substitute for all mankind.

The work of Christ on the Cross satisfied God the Father.  The spoils of victory were taken from Satan whose back was broken with the victory of the Lord Jesus Christ on the Cross.  A portfolio of invisible blessings was available for all believers.  And the door of Salvation was open for all who would use their volition to believe in Jesus Christ.  Salvation is available by faith in Jesus Christ per Decrees four and five.  Jesus Christ executed the Plan of God perfectly so that He was uniquely qualified to go to the Cross as a lamb without sin.  He paid for the sins of the world to become the Savior who was promised during the Eternal Life Conference.

The four Gospels recorded the life of the Lord Jesus Christ, who came to the earth in the fulness of time to pay for the sins of the world.  The First Advent of the Lord Jesus Christ was an act of the Love of God from the Eternal Life Conference.

For in this manner God loved the world, that He gave His uniquely born Son that whoever believes in Him will not perish but have Eternal Life (John 3:16)
After His death on the Cross, the Lord Jesus Christ was resurrected.  Eternal Life cannot die, and Salvation includes a resurrection body.  All who believe in Jesus Christ will also receive resurrection bodies to live in the presence of God forever.

The Lord Jesus Christ went to Heaven in His resurrection body to await the completion of Satan's Appeal Trial.  The Church Age followed in which all the mystery doctrines associated with the Plan of God from the Eternal Life Conference have been recorded in scripture.  The Bible is the complete revelation of the Lord Jesus Christ and His work of Redemption per the Divine Decree as summarized in the Doctrine of Infralapsarianism.

The devil lost the Appeal Trial at the Cross, but cross examination of the witnesses is not yet complete.  The Church Age, as the intensified stage of the Angelic Conflict includes the production of the best witnesses for the Prosecution in human history.  The Church Age believer with the unique Spiritual Life of all human history is uniquely qualified to provide maximum glorification of God.  In the Church Age every believer has equal opportunity to advance to the highest level of Spiritual Rapport with God.  Those who will respond to the Love of God are not hindered by gender, race, social status, intelligence, or any other thing to prevent them from executing the Spiritual Life and receiving maximum Eternal rewards.

Conclusion

The ages in the Bible usually refer not to the eons of time but to the periods of time associated with the signs of the zodiac.  Granted, the zodiac contains the outline of the Bible called the Star Gospel, but it also covers the ages of time and eternity past.  The key is that Jesus Christ came in the "fulness of time."  The sign of Pisces is opposite Virgo, which is always considered the start point.  However, when ages of the zodiac are considered, the history of the human race only goes back to Gemini when Adam and Eve, the first witnesses, lived.  Therefore, there were ages before time began.

Why would the Lord put the zodiac in the sky with the constellations so conspicuously lined up along the Sun's ecliptic about every 30 degrees?  It was obviously meant to be very conspicuous to reveal the Plan of God.  However, the Plan of God did not begin in time.  In order for us to understand human history, it is necessary to have a clear perspective of the overall strategic Plan of God for the ages.  It is necessary to know about Satan's fall and Appeal Trial, and it is necessary to know about the Eternal Life Conference.  These explanations exist in scripture, but the clock in the heavens is a simple illustration to make it perspicuous.

The clock of the ages in the heavens is yet another marvelous expression of the Love of God in revealing Himself to mankind so that those who look in the sky can easily become conscious of the Plan of the Eternal God.

Romans 1:19-20
19 because what is known about God is revealed to them; for the God has revealed Himself to them.
20 For since the creation of the world His invisible attributes are clearly perceived, being perspicuous through things He has created, namely, both His eternal power and His divine nature, so that they are without excuse.
The clock of the ages is designed to get the attention of the unbeliever and to be understood by the believer.  The unbeliever may come to God consciousness and want to know God.  If so, God will provide him with Common Grace, i.e. gospel hearing.  No matter where the person is on the earth, he can look up and see the clock of ages in the sky and decide if he wants to know the Creator of the Universe.  The Justice of God will not fail to provide the gospel to anyone who is positive.  The clock of the ages is like a flashing sign in the heavens to call attention to the Creator and His work of Redemption.  The zodiac is one of the ways that God reveals His Love and makes Himself known to mankind.  Those who become aware of God at God consciousness and reject the display of His Love are without excuse.  They cannot say that God was unfair and did not give them a fair shake.

For the Christian, the clock of ages is a simple outline of the Plan of God that facilitates the understanding of the mystery doctrine of the Church Age.  The canon of scripture includes doctrine from the time of Adam until the end of time as well as doctrine from the Eternal Life Conference and doctrine about Heaven.  The simple outline of the clock of the ages helps keep the doctrines in perspective.  For example, when Adam fell, it can be taken in perspective.  The second Adam would come and provide Salvation for him in the "fulness of time."  And from the clock of the ages can be seen what happened before time began.

The clock of the ages helps our understanding of the archeological discoveries from the Prehistoric Angelic Conflict.  When bones of cavemen are discovered, they don't have to be confused with modern man, which began with Adam.  And we know there were no modern men with the dinosaurs because man had not yet been created for the Appeal Trial of Satan.  And from the clock of ages we can see that the Church Age will be over shortly and the Millennium will begin.  Compared to eternity, human history is but a drop in the bucket.  A few ages of 2,150 years do not appear so long after all.  And man is the crowning glory of all creation.

Our lives are important.  Even in our suffering we have a far greater blessing in store.  The Escrow Blessings available to the individual believer for Time and Eternity are phenomenal beyond belief.  God's Love for us is beyond dreams.  Nothing has been left out of His Plan.  He knew us in eternity past, and He knew us when the Doctrine of Infralapsarianism was provided during the Eternal Life Conference.  He knew all about us and still loved us and provided all things for us.  The clock of the ages is but a token of his magnificent Plan and a demonstration of His infinite Love.

References

1.  Terry Alden.  "The Mill of Time," 1991. http://www.technosophy.com/milltime.htm
2.  Larry Wood.  "The Christmas Story,"  January 2, 1998
3.  C. F. Keil and F. Delitzch (James Martin, Translator), Commentary on the Old Testament, Vol. I, ISBN 0-8028-8035-5 (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans Publishing Co.), 1978, p. 122.
4.  Reuben Luther Katter.  The History of Creation and Origin of the Species, (Minneapolis:  Theotes Logos Research, Inc., 4318 York Ave. So., Minneapolis, Minnesota 55410), 1967, p. 34.
5.  "A Comparison of the Position of the Sun Over Time," http://dionysia.org/astrology/sun-position-comparison.html
6.  C. F. Keil and F. Delitzch (James Martin, Translator), Commentary on the Old Testament, Vol. IV, ISBN 0-8028-8035-5 (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans Publishing Co.), 1978, p. 323.
7.  Walter A. Elwell, ed.  Evangelical Dictionary of Theology, ISBN 0-8010-3413-2 (Grand Rapids:  Baker Book House, Grand Rapids, MI 49506), 1984, p. 560-561.
8.   Remy Landau.  "Hebrew Calendar Science and Myths,"  August 7, 2001. http://www.britannica.com/bcom/eb/article/2/0,5716,108162+2+105861,00.html
9.  "Deluge," Catholic Encyclopedia, 1913, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04702a.htm
10.  Arthur Custance. "The Seed of the Woman:  Appendices," May 22, 1997. http://custance.org/old/seed/append.html
11.  "A Brief Political History of Mesopotamia,"  http://uruk.homepage.com/history.html
12.  Richard Hooker.  "World Civilizations,"  Washington State University, 1994.  http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/TIMELINE.HTM
13.  Gesenius, Wilhelm, and Samuel Prideaux Tregelles. Gesenius' Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament Scriptures. Bellingham, WA: Logos Research Systems, Inc, 2003.


Released February 3, 2001 - Revised Oct 4, 2012

Author: Larry Wood
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